Side effects of the fever-reducing drugs

side effects of fever reducing drugs

There are plenty of fever reducing drugs on the market, Most of them have some side effects. Let’s find our more about them.

Ibuprofen (Nurofen)

ibuprofen-side-effects

Common side effects

The common side effects of ibuprofen taken by mouth happen in more than 1 in 100 people. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist if these side effects bother you or don’t go away:

  • headaches
  • feeling dizzy
  • feeling sick (nausea)
  • being sick (vomiting)
  • wind
  • indigestion

Serious side effects

Call a doctor straight away if you have:

  • black poo or blood in your vomit – these can be signs of bleeding in your stomach
  • swollen ankles, blood in your pee or not peeing at all – these can be signs of a kidney problem
  • severe chest or stomach pain – these can be signs of a hole in your stomach or gut
  • difficulty breathing, or asthma symptoms that become worse

Serious allergic reaction

In rare cases, it’s possible to have a serious allergic reaction to ibuprofen.

Aspirin

Like all medicines, aspirin can cause side effects although not everyone gets them.

Common side effects

Common side effects of aspirin as fever reducing drug happen in more than 1 in 100 people. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist if the side effects bother you or do not go away:

  • mild indigestion
  • bleeding more easily than usual – aspirin thins your blood it can sometimes make you bleed more easily. For example, you may get nosebleeds, bruise more easily, and if you cut yourself, the bleeding may take longer than normal to stop.

Serious side effects

It happens rarely, but some people have serious side effects after taking aspirin.

Call a doctor straight away if you get:

  • red, blistered and peeling skin
  • coughing up blood or blood in your pee, poo or vomit
  • yellow skin or the whites of your eyes turn yellow – this can be a sign of liver problems
  • painful joints in the hands and feet – this can be a sign of high levels of uric acid in the blood
  • swollen hands or feet – this can be a sign of water retention

Naproxen (Naprosyn, Stirlescent, Feminax Ultra, Period Pain Reliever, Boots Period Pain Relief)

Common side effects

Common side effects of naproxen happen in more than 1 in 100 people.

They include:

  • confusion
  • headaches
  • ringing in the ears
  • changes in vision
  • tiredness and feeling sleepy
  • dizziness
  • rashes

Talk to your doctor or pharmacist if these side effects bother you or do not go away.

Serious side effects

Call your doctor straight away if you have:

  • severe indigestion, heartburn, pains in your stomach, feeling or being sick (nausea or vomiting) or diarrhoea – these can be signs of an ulcer or inflammation in the stomach or gut
  • vomiting blood or dark particles that look like coffee grounds, blood in your poo, or black, tarry-looking poo – these could be signs of bleeding and perforation of the stomach or gut
  • a frequent sore throat, nose bleeds, and infections – these can be signs of abnormalities in your blood cells, known as agranulocytosis
  • fainting, chest pain, or breathlessness – these can be signs of anaemia
  • high temperature, feeling or being sick, confusion, headache, neck stiffness and sensitivity to light – these can be signs of aseptic meningitis
  • blood in your pee, a decrease in how much pee is passed, feeling or being sick – these can be signs of kidney damage or infection
  • yellow skin or the whites of your eyes turn yellow – these can be signs of jaundice or inflammation of the liver
  • irregular, slow heartbeats caused by high levels of potassium in the blood
  • high temperature, stomach pain and being sick – these can be signs of inflammation of the pancreas

Given the frequency of antipyretic use for the treatment of fever and the relative paucity of adverse events associated with such therapy, treatment of fever with antipyretic agents should be considered safe. However, the following caveats are in order. First, there are probably some populations at increased risk for adverse events, even with episodic treatment employing single agents summarizes recommendations regarding the selection of agents in specific populations. Second, patients should receive clear instructions regarding formulation-specific dosing guidelines and the need to account for antipyretic content of combination multisymptom products. Finally, expectations regarding the response to antipyretic agents should be addressed. Attempts at achieving euthermia through aggressive pharmacotherapy should be modulated by the toxicities of the individual agents. Adherence to these principles should allow for even safer use of these agents in the management of fever.

Antimalarial Drugs – Side Effects

HuydroxyChloroquine side effects

Depending on antimalarial side effects may vary. This is why we have listed several antimalarials and their side effects below?

Mefloquine side effects

  • Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, insomnia, vivid dreams. Continue the course unless these side effects become unbearable.
  • Dizziness, loss of balance, and ringing in the ear. Discuss with you pharmacist or doctor if you are involved in activities that require a high degree of alertness, sense of balance or performance of skilled tasks. These side effects can occur at any time during drug use and can last for months to years after the drug is stopped or can be permanent. If you experience these symptoms stop taking Mefloquine immediately and see your doctor for an alternative anti-malaria medication.
  • Rare side effects: acute anxiety, depression, restlessness, confusion, severe dizziness, hallucinations. If you experience these symptoms stop taking Mefloquine immediately and see your doctor for an alternative anti-malaria medication.
  • Most side effects from this medication usually occur before the second dose.

​Atovaquone / Proguanil (Malarone®) side effects

  • Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, diarrhoea. If you experience such symptoms, please continue unless side effects become intolerable.

Doxycycline side effects

  • Sunburn due to sunlight sensitivity, therefore try to avoid prolonged exposure to sunlight and use sunscreen.
  • Nausea or diarrhoea. This is minimised by taking the medication with a meal.
  • Inflammation of the oesophagus. Avoid lying down for half an hour after taking medication.
  • Space the medication apart from iron supplements and antacids as it impairs the absorption of the medication.

Chloroquine side effects

  • ​Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, insomnia, dizziness, visual disturbances, itchy skin. Continue the course unless these side effects become unbearable.
  • Although uncommon, chloroquine may lower your blood glucose level; seek medical attention immediately if you experience symptoms such as dizziness, confusion, feeling hungry, nervous or anxious.​

Remember, antimalarial side effects may vary from drug to drug. Always consult the doctor before taking it.

Side effects of antibiotics

antibiotic-medication-side effects

According to NHS the most common side effects of antibiotics affect the digestive system. These happen in around 1 in 10 people.

Side effects of antibiotics that affect the digestive system include: 

  • vomiting
  • nausea (feeling like you may vomit) 
  • diarrhoea
  • bloating and indigestion
  • abdominal pain
  • loss of appetite

These side effects are usually mild and should pass once you finish your course of treatment.

If you get any additional side effects, contact your GP or the doctor in charge of your care for advice.

Antibiotic allergic reactions

Around 1 in 15 people have an allergic reaction to antibiotics, especially penicillin and cephalosporins. In most cases, the allergic reaction is mild to moderate and can take the form of:

  • a raised, itchy skin rash (urticaria, or hives)
  • coughing
  • wheezing
  • tightness of the throat, which can cause breathing difficulties

These mild to moderate allergic reactions can usually be successfully treated by taking antihistamines.

But if you’re concerned, or your symptoms don’t get better with treatment, call your GP for advice. If you cannot contact your GP, call NHS 111.

In rare cases, an antibiotic can cause a severe and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis.

Initial symptoms of anaphylaxis are often the same as a mild allergic reaction. They include:

  • feeling lightheaded or faint 
  • breathing difficulties – such as fast, shallow breathing
  • wheezing
  • a fast heartbeat
  • clammy skin
  • confusion and anxiety
  • collapsing or losing consciousness

There may be other allergy symptoms, including an itchy, raised rash (hives), feeling or being sick, swelling (angioedema), or stomach pain.

Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency and can be life-threatening. Dial 999 immediately and ask for an ambulance if you think you or someone around you is experiencing anaphylaxis.

Tetracyclines and sensitivity to light 

Tetracyclines can make your skin sensitive to sunlight and artificial sources of light, such as sun lamps and sunbeds.

Avoid prolonged exposure to bright light while taking these medicines.

Fluoroquinolones and severe aches and pains

In very rare cases, fluoroquinolone antibiotics can cause disabling, long-lasting or permanent side effects affecting the joints, muscles and nervous system.

Stop taking fluoroquinolone treatment straight away and see your GP if you get a serious side effect including:

  • tendon, muscle or joint pain – usually in the knee, elbow or shoulder
  • tingling, numbness or pins and needles

CBD – Alternative to other drugs – Latest research

The list that Ministry of Hemp have complied below highlights the findings that our science community has found when it comes to the benefits of CBD.

More and more research is being done and published on the subject of the effects of CBD on human health and as an alternative to drugs or pharmaceuticals. The list that our researchers have complied below highlights the findings that our science community has found when it comes to the benefits of CBD. 

1. Epilepsy

CBD first came to the national spotlight when CNN’s documentary highlighted how the hemp extract improved Charlotte’s conditions, a child suffering from dravet syndrome. Complementing this story, several anecdotal evidence and initial research show that CBD has strong implications to help patients with epilepsy.

Here are the conclusions reached from research and clinical trials done behind epilepsy and CBD:

CBD - Alternative to other drugs - Latest research
Reported benefits of CBD
  • Evidence strongly supports CBD as therapeutic candidate for a diverse range of human epilepsies. Source
  • CBD was an effective and relatively potent anticonvulsant in both maximal electroshock and audiogenic seizure tests. Source

2. Chronic Pain

Early results tell us that CBD can help reduce chronic pain, especially those related to nerve pain.

  • The results indicate a potential for therapeutic use of cannabidiol in chronic painful states. Source
  • We report that systemic and intrathecal administration of cannabidiol (CBD) significantly suppress chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain without causing apparent analgesic tolerance. Source
  • Cannabis sativa extracts, containing known doses of tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, have granted approval in Canada for the relief of neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis.

3. Anxiety

One of CBD’s most promising implications have been in its anti-anxiety properties. Some pet owners have even reported that using CBD oil on their dogs have helped treat them for anxiety issues. Early clinical trials have shown that this seems to be the case for both humans and animals:

  • Studies using animal models of anxiety and involving healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. Moreover, CBD was shown to reduce anxiety in patients with social anxiety disorder.Source
  • Pretreatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort in their speech performance, and significantly decreased alert in their anticipatory speech. Source
  • Results suggest that CBD reduces anxiety in social anxiety disorder and that this is related to its effects on activity in limbic and paralimbic brain areas. Source

4. Depression

CBD dosing experiments have shown that small dosages of CBD has an “Active” effect, which means that it actually helps you stay active and focused. Interestingly, large dosages have the opposite effect: a sedative effect. More research has to show what is the optimal dosage to take for the anti-anxiety and antidepressant effects to be optimal, but it’s something one can also experiment with to find the dosage that suits them best.

  • CBD exhibited an anti-anxiety and antidepressant effects in animal models discussed. Source
  • Our results demonstrate that CBD exerts fast and maintained antidepressant-like effects as evidenced by the reversal of the OBX-induced hyperactivity and anhedonia. In conclusion, our findings indicate that CBD could represent a novel fast antidepressant drug, via enhancing both serotonergic and glutamate cortical signalling through a 5-HT1A receptor-dependent mechanism. Source

5. Arthritis

CBD’s benefits of alleviating joint pains has been the main reason behind brands developing topicals infused with CBD. You can find many brands who are starting to offer lotions or muscle freeze applications that include CBD. Source

6. Diabetes

The results of testing for CBD’s effects on diabetes is in a very primitive stage. However, early findings have shown that cannabinoids (both THC and CBD) can have positive effects in slowing down cell damages that are related to diabetes.

  • We now report that CBD treatment significantly reduces the incidence of diabetes in NOD mice from an incidence of 86% in non-treated control mice to an incidence of 30% in CBD-treated mice. Source
  • In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 62 subjects with noninsulin-treated type 2 diabetes were randomized to five treatment arms: CBD (100 mg twice daily). CBD decreased resistin (-898 pg/ml; P < 0.05) and increased glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (21.9 pg/ml; P < 0.05). Source
  • Evidence is emerging that some nonpsychotropic plant cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol, can be employed to retard β-cell damage in type 1 diabetes. Source

Yet it is quite difficult to find honest information from reliable source. This lack of transparency can be boiled down to a couple reasons that are all intertwined. First, what’s holding everything back is the taboo against cannabis (“marijuana”) that continues to exist in our society.